Hysteresis Effects in Bavarian Beech Forest Ecosystems through Climate Extremes

Beech is the most important deciduous tree species in Bavaria and the key species of a variety of beech forest ecosystems. It offers a diversity of ecological and economic advantages, and is widely accepted as a robust and sustainable component of resilient mixed forests in Bavaria. However, an increase in frequency (and magnitude) of droughts and late frosts is very likely to be observed under climate change conditions in Bavaria – climatic extremes to which beech trees respond highly sensitive.

Response of beech trees in the Bavarian Forest to a late frost event. The upper panel shows the canopy state at May 3rd 2011, just before the late frost event, and the lower panel shows the canopy state at May 4th 2011, just after the late frost event. The white areas signify regions of interests for image analysis to compute the duration of canopy recovery. (Image source: Menzel A., Helm R. & Zang C. (2015). Functional Plant Ecology, 6, 110.)


HyBBEx investigates temporal legacies of these climate extremes, so-called hysteresis effects, which may range from dedicated recovery periods to mortality. Additional to important and directly practically relevant questions about the site-specific implications for growing beech, HyBBEx is especially concerned with the ecological perspective, with a focus on the carbon balance of beech forests — because hysteresis effects may turn forest ecosystems from carbon sinks to carbon sources and can therefore directly impact important ecosystem services.

Extraction of tree-ring samples in the Bavarian Rhoen. Time series of tree growth derived from tree-ring measurements are an important data source for HyBBEx, since trees store valuable information about recovery from climate extremes in their rings. (Image source: C. Zang, private)

Currently, we know only little about these hysteresis effects, and consequently even the most up-to-date ecosystem models cannot fully capture the recovery of ecosystem productivity after climatic extremes. Therefore, a realistic process-based projection of the ecosystem functioning of forests (and more specifically beech forests) is currently not possible. HyBBEx uses an innovative approach comprising data integration, and statistical and dynamical modelling, and model-data-fusion to achieve projections of ecosystem dynamics of Bavarian forest ecosystems through a better understanding of hysteresis effects. This enables HyBBEx to deliver both basic science contributions and insights in tree species suitability and ecosystem management that can directly be fed back into forestry practice. All in all, the project wants to contribute considerably to the improved understanding of climate change impacts on Bavaria, with a direct benefit for the development of regional adaptation strategies.

Principal investigator
Prof. Dr. Christian Zang
Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf
Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 3
85354 Freising
Tel: +49 8161 71-5915


  • Waldzustandsmonitor (BLIZ & HyBBEx)
  • The European Forest Condition Monitor: Using remotely sensed forest greenness to identify hotspots of forest decline
    Buras A, Rammig A, Zang CS
    Frontiers in Plant Science 2021; 12: 689220
  • Higher susceptibility of beech to drought in comparison to oak
    Meyer BF, Buras A, Rammig A, Zang CS
    Dendrochronologia 2020; 64: 125780
  • A first assessment of the impact of the extreme 2018 summer drought on Central European forests
    Schuldt B, Buras A, Arend M (et al., et seq.) Beierkuhnlein C, Rammig A, Zang CS
    Basic and Applied Ecology 2020; 45: 86-103
  • Quantifying impacts of the 2018 drought on European ecosystems in comparison to 2003
    Buras A, Rammig A, Zang CS
    Biogeosciences 2020; 17: 1655–1672
  • Wie geht es den deutschen Wäldern?
    Buras A, Meyer BF, Zang CS
    Ländlicher Raum 2020; 78:2: 14-16
  • OCO-2 Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Variability across Ecoregions of the Amazon Basin and the Extreme Drought Effects of El Niño (2015–2016)
    Castro AO, Chen J, Zang CS, Shekhar A, Jimenez JC, Bhattacharjee S, Kindu M, Morales VH, Rammig A
    Remote Sensing 2020; 12(7): 1202
  • Excess forest mortality is consistently linked to drought across Europe
    Senf C, Buras A, Zang CS, Rammig A, Seidl R
    Nature Communications 2020; 11: 6200
  • A novel approach for the identification of pointer years
    Buras A, Rammig A, Zang CS
    Dendrochronologia 2020; 63: 125746
  • Pitfalls in estimating the global carbon removal via forest expansion – a comment on Bastin et al. (2019
    Krause A, Arneth A, Bayer A, Buras A, Knoke T, Zang C, Rammig A
    bioRxiv preprint 2019
  • Standardized drought indices in ecological research: Why one size does not fit all
    Zang CS, Buras A, Esquivel‐Muelbert A, Jump AS, Rigling A, Rammig A
    Global Change Biology 2019; 26(2): 322-324
  • Den Zustand des Waldes visualisieren
    Buras A, Zang C, Rammig A
    Umwelttechnologie und Energie in Bayern 2019: 24-25; München, media mind
  • Projecting tree species composition changes of European forests for 2061-2090 under RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios
    Buras A, Menzel A
    Frontiers in Plant Science 2019; 9: 1–13
  • Are Scots pine forest edges particularly prone to drought-induced mortality?
    Buras A, Schunk C, Zeiträg C et al., Menzel A
    Environmental Research Letters 2018; 13: 025001

Doctoral Thesis

  • Dynamic modeling of legacy effects of late-frost and drought in European beech forest ecosystems
    Meyer, Ben (laufende Dissertation, HyBBEx)
  • Recovery of beech forest ecosystems from extreme climatic events
    Leifsson, Christopher (laufende Dissertation, HyBBEx)

Final Papers

  • Analyse der Zuwachsreaktion von Buchen im Biosphären-Reservat Rhön auf den Trockensommer 2018
    Kosel, Verena (laufende Masterarbeit, HyBBEx)
  • Projecting Future Forest Tree Species Climatic Suitability under Climate Change Conditions in the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Rhön Using Climate Analogues.
    Hasan, Moynul (Masterarbeit 2020, HyBBEx)
  • Trockenstress am Bausenberg? Analyse von Klima-Wachstums-Beziehungen an Picea abies.
    Schrenker, Simone (Bachelorarbeit 2019, HyBBEx)
  • Higher susceptibility of beech to drought: A multi-method dendroecological analysis
    Meyer, Benjamin (Masterarbeit 2019, HyBBEx); Preis des Bürgermeisters der Stadt Freising für herausragende Abschlussarbeit